Archives & Archival Materials


Chinese Archival Collections

(Many of these works reproduce or transcribe Tibetan originals.)

Lhasa

  • Bod rang skyong ljongs lo rgyus yig tshags khang; Ye shes tshul khrims, eds. Lcags stag zhig gzhung. Zi ling: Krung go Bod kyi shes rig dpe skrun khang, 1989.
    1830s land and tax survey of Central Tibet. Digested and interpreted by Karl Ryavec, in a geographic journal article. This and simliar materials from 1793 also discussed in Nakane Chie survey of sources (72-73). For Chinese translation see:
  • Tie hu qing ce铁虎清册. Gesangzhuoge, Luosangjianzan, trans. eds. Peking: Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 1991.
    1830s land survey, Central Tibet.
  • Xizang li shi dang an guan. Xuekang—Tudengnima. Zai yi zhi--Bo, shuang chong zai pian灾异志--雹霜虫灾篇. [Beijing] : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 1990.
    Chinese translations of Tibetan archival material on natural disasters in Tibet, 19th-20th c.
  • Bod rang skyong ljongs yig tshags khang, ed. Bca'  yig phyogs bsgrigs. Lha-sa: Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang, 2001. BQ6160.T55 B33 2001
    Almost sixty collected monastery constitutions. See article by Ter Ellingson below for this genre.
  • Bkra shis dbang 'dus. Bod kyi lo rgyus yig tshags dang gzhung yig phyogs bsdus dwangs shel me long. Pe-cin: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1989.
  • Bod kyi lo rgyus yig tshags gces btus zhes pa'i dpe deb la dpyad pa'i gtam: don tshan drug cu pa. Dharamsala : Bde srung Bod gnas nyams zhib khang nas, 2000.
  • Tshe brtan phun tshogs, Chab spel & Mi 'gyur rdo rje, eds. Bod kyi gal che'i lo rgyus yig cha bdams bsgrigs = Zang zhong yao li shi zi liao xuan bian. Lhasa: Bod ljongs Bod yig dpe rnying dpe skrun khang, 1991.
    See Martin #588, p. 215: "collection of legal and administrative documents."
  • Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho.Rgya Bod Hor Sog gi mchog dman bar pa rnams la 'phrin yig snyan ngag tu bkod pa Rab snyan rgyud mang = Letters to various notables of China, Tibet and Mongolia [from the fifth Dalai lama]. Thimphu : Kunsang Topgay, 1975.
    See also book of same title: Zi ling : Mtsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1993.
  • Zhongguo she hui ke xue yuan min zu yan jiu suo, Xizang Zizhiqu dang an guan, eds.; Lu Liandi, Wang Yuping, etc. trans. Xizang she hui li shi Zang wen dang an zi liao yi wen ji. Beijing : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 1997.
    Tibetan society & history, archival materials in Tibetan language, translated into Chinese.
  • Bod rang skyong ljongs yig tshags ko'an, comp. "'Brel yod zhor gtogs yig rigs 'ga' zhig." In Bod kyi rig gnas lo rgyus dpyad gzhi'i rgyu cha bdams bsgrigs, 1st ser., vol. 9, 236-311. Lha sa: Bod rang skyong ljongs srid gros rig gnas lo rgyus dpyad gzhi'i rgyu cha zhib 'jug u yon lhan khang, 1986.
    A collection of letters and documents of historical significance including PRC communications with Dalai and Panchen Lamas.
  • 'Phrin las chos grags, ed. Krung go'i Bod sa gnas kyi lo rgyus yig tshang phyogs btus. Lhasa: Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang. 1986.
    From Martin #558, p. 208: "collection of historical inscriptions, documents, excerpts [from other sources]."
  • Bkra shis dbang 'dus, ed.Bod kyi lo rgyus yig tshangs dang gzhung yig phyogs bsdus dwangs shel me long. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang. 1989.
    Martin #575, p. 212: "collection of historical sources, mainly government documents."

Nanjing

  • Li, Pengnian, and Qingqiu Fang, eds. Jiushi Banchan yuanji zhiji he shishi Banchan zhuanshi zuochuang dang'an xuanbian [Selections from the archives about offering sacrifices to the death of the ninth Panchen and the tenth Panchen's enthronement]. Edited by Zhongguo dier lishi dang'an guan and Zhongguo xizang yanjiu zhongxin. Beijing: Zhongguo zangxue chubanshe, 1991.
    Chinese language documents on the ninth Panchen Lama, Chos kyi nyi ma (1883-1937), and the tenth Panchen Lama, Chos kyi rgyal mtshan (1938-1989).
  • Li, Pengnian, and Qingqiu Fang, eds. Jiushi Banchan neidi huodong ji fanzang shuoxian dang'an xuanbian [Selections from the archives concerning the ninth Panchen's activities in China and the limitations on his return to Tibet]. Edited by Zhongguo dier lishi dang'an guan and Zhongguo xizang yanjiu zhongxin. Beijing: Zhongguo zangxue chubanshe, 1992.
    Chinese language documents on the ninth Panchen Lama, Chos kyi nyi ma (1883-1937) who spent 1923-1937 in China due to conflicts with the governement of central Tibet.
  • Qingdai Zangshi dian gao [Telegrams about Tibetan affairs in the first year of the Republic of China].  unknown: unknown, 1980s.
  • Zhongguo di er li shi dang an guan; Zhongguo Zang xue yan jiu zhong xin, eds. Kang Zang jiu fen dang an xuan bian康藏纠纷档案选编. Beijing : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she : Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing suo fa xing, 2000.
    Archival documents covering the issue of Khams-Tibet from 1930-1940.
  • Zhongguo Zang xue yan jiu zhong xin; Zhongguo di er li shi dang an guan, ed. Minguo shi qi xizang ji zang qu jing ji kai fang jian she dang an xuan bian. Beijing : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 2005

Beijing

  • Wu Fengpei, Zeng Guoqing. Qing dai zhu Zang da chen zhuan lue. Lhasa: Xizang ren min chu ban she, 1988.
    Brief biographies of the Qing ambans resident in Tibet.
  • (Qing) Gaozong [zhu]; Labapingcuo, Chen Jiajin ed. Yu zhi shi wen shi quan ji. [Peking]: Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 1993.
    Documents related to Tibet, by the Qianlong emperor.
  • Zhongguo di yi li shi dang an guan, Zhongguo Zang xue yan jiu zhong xin he bian. Liu shi Banchan chao jin dang an xuan bian六世班禅朝觐档案选编. Beijing : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she : Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing suo fa xing, 1996.
    Sixth {Third} Panchen Lama's visit to the Qing court.
  • Zhao Xueyi, Chang Weimin, Ou Shengming (eds). Qing dai yi lai zhong yang zheng fu dui Xizang di zhi li yu huo fo zhuan shi zhi du shi liao hui ji清代以来中央政府对西藏的治理与活佛转世制度史料汇集. Beijing : Hua wen chu ban she, 1996.
    Archival documents in four parts: 1) from 1653 (Gushri Khan's golden plates), but mostly from 1721 and after covering Central Tibetan and Qing court recognition of incarnate lamas. 2) matters related to the Golden Urn, from 1792 to 1911, 3) Dalai Lamas, dealt with sequentially 4) Panchen Lamas, dealt with sequentially; there is also: 5) research on incarnations by modern scholars.
  • Huang Hao. Zai Beijing de Zang zu wen wu [Beijing Tibetan Buddhist cultural relics]. Beijing : Min zu chu ban she, 1993.
    Includes inscriptions (in Tibetan and Chinese) of Ming and Qing stele.

Facsimile Reproductions

The following facsimile reproductions are available in Chinese, and sometimes English, translations.

  • Archives of the Tibet Autonomous Region, ed. Xizang li shi dang an hui cui西藏歴史檔案薈粹 = A collection of historical archives of Tibet. [Beijing] : Wen wu chu ban she, 1995.
    Yuan, Ming and Qing period documents translated into English.
  • Zhongguo di 1 li shi dang an guan.; Zhongguo Zang xue yan jiu zhong xin. Qing chu wu shi Dalai la ma dang an shi liao xuan bian. Beijing: Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 2000.
    Fifth Dalai Lama; some documents translated from Manchu or Mongolian.
  • Wenqing Suo; Meilan Guo, eds. Qing gong zhen cang li shi Dalai Lama dang an hui cui [Treasure collection of Dalai Lama from the Bejing archives of Qing dynasty]. Beijing: Zong jiao wen hua chu ban she, 2002.
    Some documents translated from Manchu or Mongolian. In Chinese, Manchu, Mongolian and Tibetan, with Chinese translation.
  • -----. Qing gong zhen cang li shi Banchan E'erdeni dang an hui cui. Beijing: Zong jiao wen hua chu ban she. 2004.
    Collection on the Panchen Lamas, from the archives of Qing dynasty In Chinese, Manchu, Mongolian and Tibetan. Manchu, Mongolian and Tibetan texts with Chinese translation.
  • Xueyi Zhao;Weimin Chang; Shengming Ou. Qing dai yi lai zhong yang zheng fu dui Xizang di zhi li yu huo fo zhuan shi zhi du shi liao hui ji. Beijing : Hua wen chu ban she, 1996.
  • Xining Qinghai fan yi cheng li [Regulations for the Commander of Tibetan and Native Affairs of Xining and Qinghai], in Shengjing Manwen dang'an zhong de lülong ji shaoshu mizu falü (Codes and Statues and laws relating to he national minorities from the Manchu-language archives at Shengjing [Shenyang]).
  • Zhang Ruizhi and Xu Lizhi, eds. in chief, 3rd series, vol. 2 of Zhongguo zhen xi falü dianji jicheng 中國珍稀法律典籍集成 [Collection of rare works of Chinese law], Liu Hainian and Yang Yifan, series eds. 14 vols. Beijing: Kezue chubanshe, 1994. KNN10.A2 C48 1994
  • In the seven-part series, Zang xue dang an shi liao mu lu cong shu, Collected Catalogues of Tibetological Archival Materials, 藏学档案史料目录丛书:
    • Qinghai Sheng dang an guan suo cun Xizang he Zang shi dang an shi liao mu lu, 1724-1949 Z3107.T5 Q56 2002
    • Yunnan Sheng Diqing Zangzu Zizhizhou suo cun Xizang he Zang shi dang an shi liao mu lu, 1738-1949 nian Z3107.T5 Y86 2002
    • Li Pengnian, Li Shigen zhu bian ;Sichuan sheng dang an guan, Zhongguo Zang xue yan jiu zhong xin he bian李鹏年李仕根主编;四川省档案馆, 中国藏学硏究中心合编.. Sichuan sheng suo cun Xizang he zang shi dang an shi liao mu lu (1388-1949) 四川省所存西藏和藏事档案史料目录 (1388-1949). Beijing : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 2000. Z3107.T5 S53 2000
      Index and chronological listing of Sichuan provincial archival holdings on Tibet and Tibetan affairs from 1388-1949.
    • Gansu sheng dang an guan, Zhongguo Zang xue yan jiu zhong xin he bian. Gansu sheng suo cun Xizang he Zang shi dang an shi liao mu lu : 1412-1949 nian. 甘肃省档案馆, 中国藏学硏究中心合编. : 1412-1949 nian. 甘肃省所存西藏和藏事档案史料目录 : 1412-1949年. Beijing : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 1997. Z3107.T5 K36 1997
      Index and chronological listing of Gansu provincial archival holdings on Tibet and Tibetan affairs from 1412-1949.
    • Zhongguo di 1 li shi dang an guan.; Zhongguo Zang xue yan jiu zhong xin. Zhongguo di 1 li shi dang an guan suo cun Xizang he Zang shi dang an mu lu. Man Zang wen bu fen. 中国第一历史档案馆所存西藏和藏事档案目录 : 满藏文部分 Beijing: Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 1999. Z3107.T5 C49 1999
      Index and chronological listing of Beijing Archives holdings on Tibet and Tibetan affairs, Manchu language portion, covering the Qing period (1644-1911).
    • Zhongguo di yi li shi dang an guan suo cun Xizang he Zang shi dang an mu lu. Han wen bu fen /中国第一历史档案馆所存西藏和藏事档案目录. 汉文部分. Beijing : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 2000. CD2056.T55 Z47 2000
      Index and chronological listing of Beijing Archives holdings on Tibet and Tibetan affairs, Chinese language portion, covering the Qing period (1644-1911).
    • Zhongguo di er li shi dang an guan, Zhongguo Zang xue yan jiu zhong xin he bian中国第二历史挡案馆, 中国藏学硏究中心合编.Zhongguo di yi li shi dang an guan suo cun Xizang he Zang shi dang an mu lu. Beijing: Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she, 2000. 2 Vols. Z3107.T5 Z56 2000
      Index and chronological listing of Nanjing Archives holdings on Tibet and Tibetan affairs, covering the Republican period (1912-1949).
  • Cairang Zhecang, ed. Qing dai Qinghai Menggu zu dang an shi liao ji bian. Xining: Qinghai ren min chu ban she, 1994.
    Yongzheng to Xuantong emperors' reigns. Good source for compiling a list of the Qinghai amban. See charts from 2nd year Xuantong era for information on the Mongol banners distribution and leadership.

Reference Material

The following resources are especially helpful for archival material.

  • Schuh, Dieter. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der tibetischen Kalenderrechnung. Wiesbaden, F. Steiner, 1973.
    Complete concordance of Tibetan and Western dates. A simple, though imprecise, concordance of the Tibetan and Western years (from 1027 A.D.) fits onto a single page. See also: the Phlonx Tibetan Calendar Converter
  • Spyi lo dang/ rgya bod lugs bcas rab byung lo drangs so so'i ngos 'dzin blta bde'i re'u mig
    This is a more complicated 12 page concordance of dates.
  • Dung dkar Blo bzang 'phrin las & Dar mdo Bkra-shis dbang 'dus. Bod kyi rig gnas dang lo rgyus kyi re'u mig ngo mtshar kun snang. [Chengdu] : Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang. 1997.
    Pages 7-15, includes chart of dates from 1027-2041, including reign dates of various Chinese dynasties and emperors.
  • Dong Zuobin, ed. Zhongguo nian li zong pu. Xianggang : Xianggang da xue chu ban she, 1960.
    Chronological list of the years 2674 B.C. to 2000 A.D. with Chinese equivalents. Essential for dating Chinese records. For an on-line resource (in Chinese): http://sinocal.sinica.edu.tw/lusodoc.html
  • Ellingson, Ter. "Tibetan Monastic Constitutions: The Bca' yig," in Reflections on Tibetan Culture: Essays in Memory of Turrel V. Wylie.  Lawrence Epstein and Richard F. Sherburne, Eds.  E. Mellen Press, Lewiston, 1990. 205-230.
  • Schuh, Dieter. Erlasse und Sendschreiben mongolischer Herrscher für tibetische Geistliche : e. Beitr. zur Kenntnis d. Urkunden d. tibet. Mittelalters u. ihrer Diplomatik. St. Augustin : VGH-Wissenschaftsverlag, 1977.
    Essential guide to the diplomatic literature of the Yuan dynasty.
  • ‑‑‑. Urkunden, Erlasse und Sendschreiben aus dem Besitz sikkimesischer Adelshäuser und des Klosters Phodang. S[ank]t Augustin : VGH Wissenschaftsverlag, 1978.
  • ‑‑‑. Grundlagen tibetischer Siegelkunde: eine Untersuchung über tibetische Siegelaufschriften in 'Phags-pa-Schrift. Sankt Augustin : VGH Wissenschaftsverlag, 1981.
    Essential for understanding the 'Phags pa script used on seals.
  • Poppe, Nicholas. Translated and edited by John R. Krueger. The Mongolian monuments in hP’ags-pa script. Wiesbaden, O. Harrassowitz, 1957.
  • Das, Sarat Chandra, ed. Yig kur nam shag: Being a Collection of Letters, Both Official and Private, and Illustrating the Different Forms of Correspondence Used in Tibet. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Press, 1901.
    The preface to this work describes the editor’s sources for the three collections of documents contained herein and the contents are also given in English. Reproduces and explains government documents and their usefulness as models.

European Archival Collections

Digitized Tibetan Archives Material at Bonn University

Documents, Records and Letters concerning Tibetan History, including Documents of Kündeling Monastery
From website:"The study of Tibetan history is still mainly based on literary and rarely on official sources, due to almost non-exisiting access. Therefore Prof. P. Schwieger initiated a "data pool" at the Seminar for Central Asian Studies, Bonn University, presenting and analysing a representative sample. In 1998 until the end of the year 2000, we worked together with the staff of the Archives of the Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR), Lhasa, on a project dealing with Legal Documents from and for Kündeling Monastery covering the 13th to the 20th century. More than 2700 documents were digitally recorded and are shown either as a digital copy or as a text-file using Tibetan Ucan scripts. All seals can be examined separatedly. In addition to articles on Kündeling Monastery's history and on the peculiarities of the scripts used in the documents, the search module allows one to scrutinize the original texts as well as the information stored in the database."

The Nepalese-German Manuscript Cataloguing Project
Initiated in 1970 by the German Oriental Society to catalogue and create microfilm images of ancient Nepali and Tibetan religious and historical texts. The site gives a history of the project, as well as a few paragraphs on the "Cultural heritage of Nepal" and the process of microfilming. Copies of the texts microfilmed by the project can be ordered. Includes numerous historical documents from Samling Gompa (Mustang area), including Tibetan and Chinese documents from early 19th century relaying orders of the Manchu emperor.