Imperial Records

General Resources

  • Wilkinson, Endymion.Chinese History: A Manual, Revised and Enlarged. Cambridge: Harvard-Yenching Institute, 2000.
    Pages 483-538 (Historical Genre); 939-943 (50.4 Official Historical Works); 949 (50.6.4 Edicts and Memorials), pp. 900-921 (50. 1 Central Archives; 50.2.1 Yishiguan; 50.2.2. General Publications); [optional: 50.2.5 Documents Relating to Taiwan and 50.2.6 Documents in Manchu].
  • Ye Wa and Joseph W. Esherick. Chinese archives: an introductory guide. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California : Center for Chinese Studies, 1996.
    Gives archives addresses and describes holdings in Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Yunnan, Beijing (for Qing materials) and Nanjing (for Republican era materials).
  • Zhang Yuxin张羽新, ed. Qing chao zhi Zang fa gui quan bian 清朝治藏法规全编.Beijing : Xue yuan chu ban she, 2002. 5 vols.
    Collection of laws and regulations of Qing-controlled Tibet.
  • Yuan yi lai Xizang di fang yu zhong yang zheng fu guan xi yan jiu. Duojiecaidan; Deng Ruiling, eds. 2 v. [Beijing] : Zhongguo Zang xue chu ban she. 2005.
    Topical essays in chronological order from Yuan dynasty to Republican China. Excellent guide to the collected archives with the same initial title: Yuan yi lai Xizang di fang yu zhong yang zheng fu guan xi dang an shi liao hui bian. (see below).
  • Kolmas, Josef. "Ch'ing shih kao on Modern History of Tibet (1903-1912)," Archiv Orientalni 32:1 (1964), pp. 77-99.
    Survey of the Tibetan materials in the draft history of the Qing dynasty, compiled between 1914-1928, revised in 1937.

Collected Inscriptions

  • “Qingdai lama jiao beike lu.” In Qing zhengfu yu lama jiao, ed. by Zhang Xixin. Lhasa: Xizang renmin chubanshe, 1988. Appendix (p. 205-510): Collected Chinese inscriptions from the Qing dynasty regarding Tibetan Buddhism, organized by reign period.
    An amazing resource, almost untouched by Western scholars. Other books like this exist for Wutaishan, but this probably includes all relevant inscriptions.
  • Huang Hao.Zai Beijing de Zangzu wenwu. 1993. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe.
    Appendix (p. 92-116): Tibetan (and two Chinese) language inscriptions from Ming & Qing Beijing.

Collected Impressions of Seals

  • The Tibetan Seals Database Overview 
  • Xizang lidai zang yin西藏历代藏印. Lhasa: Xizang renmin chubanshe, 1991.
  • Nor rgyas nang pa, Dbang 'dus tshe ring [Bka' drung]. Tham deb bkod par. In Bod kyi gal che'i lo rgyus yig cha bdams bsgrigs [Xizang zhong yao li shi zi liao xuan bian]. Ed. by Tshe brtan phun tshogs, Chab spel & mi 'gyur rdo rje. Lhasa: Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang, 1991.
    Pages 33-83: Imprints of actual seals with commentary.
  • Tshe brtan phun tshogs, Chab spel & Mi 'gyur rdo rje, ed. Bod kyi gal che'i lo rgyus yig cha bdams bsgrigs = Xizang zhong yao li shi zi liao xuan bian. Lhasa: Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang, 1991.
    See Martin #587, p. 215: "illustrations and descriptions of official seals."
  • Dawson, Derrick. Some Tibetan Seals Illustrated and Described. [Vancouver, B.C.] : Geoffrey Flack, 1997.

Collected Veritable Records

  • The 25 Dynastic Histories Database On-line databases are good for searching for terms, names, etc. once you know what you are looking for. Before then, the printed extracts on Tibetan related materials from the relevant dynastic histories serve as useful locating guides. Scripta Sinica's 25 Histories & the Qingshilu (Veritable History of the Qing) can be accessed at  or .  Click on Zi liao ku 資料庫, then the fifth entry down: 清實錄, the blank space for entering search terms is labeled: 檢索條件)
  • The Draft History of the Qing (written after the dynasty had fallen, by its predecessor) is less useful for the Qing than for previous dynasties, but can be searched by clicking on:
  • 二十五史 and then: 26. 新校本清史稿   The Qingshilu
    (Veritable History of the Qing) can be accessed by clicking on: 清實錄.  The searched for words are marked in red in the texts. The display of the results is not that clear; click on下则 for more results. Sometimes, after certain searches, the main page appears repeatedly. Then you need to close all the related pages and open in Internet Explorer again.
  • See also the Complete Chinese Buddhist canon (Taisho shinshu Daizokyo), including some translations of Tibetan texts from the Yuan dynasty at Scripta Sinica:  佛經三論
  • From the series Xizang yan jiu cong kan
    Tibetology Series: These are probably only selected entries from the relevant sources, and the original should be checked for politically motiviated omissions.
    • Qing shi lu Zang zu shi liao. Xizang yan jiu bian ji bu bian ji; [bian zhe Gu Zucheng ... et al.]. 清实录藏族史料/ 西藏研究编辑部编辑 ; [编者顾祖成 et al.]. vols. 1-9. Lasa: Xizang ren min chu ban she : "Xizang yan jiu" bian ji bu zhu Rong fa xing zhan fa xing, 1982-1983.
      Tibetan related entries from the Qingshilu, with indices.
    • Yuan yi lai Xizang di fang yu zhong yang zheng fu guan xi dang an shi liao hui bian. Zhongguo zang xue yan jiu zhong xin, Zhongguo di yi, di er li shi dang an guan, Xizang Zizhiqu dang an guan, Sichuan sheng dang an guan bian zhu. 元以来西藏地方与中央政府关系档案史料汇编 / 中国藏学研究中心,中国第一,第二历史档案馆,西藏自治区档案馆四川省档案馆编著. 7 vols. [Peking] : Zhongguo zang xue chu ban she : Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing suo fa xing, 1994.
      Some Tibetan related entries from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, with indices.

Reference Material

  • Schuh, Dieter. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der tibetischen Kalenderrechnung. Wiesbaden, F. Steiner, 1973.
    Complete concordance of Tibetan and Western dates. A simple, though imprecise, concordance of the Tibetan and Western years (from 1027 A.D.) fits onto a single page. See also: the Phlonx Tibetan Calendar Converter
  • Spyi lo dang/ rgya bod lugs bcas rab byung lo drangs so so'i ngos 'dzin blta bde'i re'u mig
    This is a more complicated 12 page concordance of dates.
  • Dung dkar Blo bzang 'phrin las & Dar mdo Bkra-shis dbang 'dus. Bod kyi rig gnas dang lo rgyus kyi re'u mig ngo mtshar kun snang. [Chengdu] : Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang. 1997.
    Pages 7-15, includes chart of dates from 1027-2041, including reign dates of various Chinese dynasties and emperors.
  • Dong Zuobin, ed. Zhongguo nian li zong pu. Xianggang : Xianggang da xue chu ban she, 1960.
    Chronological list of the years 2674 B.C. to 2000 A.D. with Chinese equivalents. Essential for dating Chinese records. For an on-line resource (in Chinese):
  • Ellingson, Ter. "Tibetan Monastic Constitutions: The Bca' yig," in Reflections on Tibetan Culture: Essays in Memory of Turrel V. Wylie.  Lawrence Epstein and Richard F. Sherburne, Eds.  E. Mellen Press, Lewiston, 1990. 205-230.
  • Schuh, Dieter. Erlasse und Sendschreiben mongolischer Herrscher für tibetische Geistliche : e. Beitr. zur Kenntnis d. Urkunden d. tibet. Mittelalters u. ihrer Diplomatik. St. Augustin : VGH-Wissenschaftsverlag, 1977.
    Essential guide to the diplomatic literature of the Yuan dynasty.
  • ‑‑‑. Urkunden, Erlasse und Sendschreiben aus dem Besitz sikkimesischer Adelshäuser und des Klosters Phodang. S[ank]t Augustin : VGH Wissenschaftsverlag, 1978.
  • ‑‑‑. Grundlagen tibetischer Siegelkunde: eine Untersuchung über tibetische Siegelaufschriften in 'Phags-pa-Schrift. Sankt Augustin : VGH Wissenschaftsverlag, 1981.
    Essential for understanding the 'Phags pa script used on seals.
  • Poppe, Nicholas. Translated and edited by John R. Krueger. The Mongolian monuments in hP’ags-pa script. Wiesbaden, O. Harrassowitz, 1957.
  • Das, Sarat Chandra, ed. Yig kur nam shag: Being a Collection of Letters, Both Official and Private, and Illustrating the Different Forms of Correspondence Used in Tibet. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Press, 1901.
    The preface to this work describes the editor’s sources for the three collections of documents contained herein and the contents are also given in English. Reproduces and explains government documents and their usefulness as models.