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Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, and Directories

  • Associations unlimited
    Provides information on associations and professional societies. Contains more than 150,000 detailed listings for organizations all over the world. Also provides IRS information on more than 300,000 nonprofit organizations.
  • Dictionary of American History
    Stanley I. Kutler, editor-in-chief. 3rd ed. (New York, N.Y. : Charles Scribner's Sons, c2003). Series: Gale virtual reference library.
    Also available in print at:
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R973 D56
  • Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History : the Black Experience in the Americas
    Colin A. Palmer. 2nd ed. 6 vols. (Detroit : Macmillan Reference USA, c2006).
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R326.8 En2
  • Encyclopedia of American Cultural & Intellectual History
    Mary Kupiec Cayton and Peter W. Williams, editors. 3 vols. (New York : Charles Scribner’s Sons, c2001).
    Location : Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R973.92 En19
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    Locations: Barnard Reference & US History & Literature Reading Rm, 502 Butler
    Call Number: E169.1 .E624 2001
  • Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy
    Alexander DeConde ... [et al.] editors. 2nd ed. (New York, N.Y. : Charles Scribner's Sons, c2002). Series: Gale virtual reference library.
    Also available in print at:
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R327.73 En194
  • Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in America
    Marc Stein, editor-in-chief. (New York, N.Y. : Charles Scribner's Sons, c2004). Series: Gale virtual reference library.
    Also available in print at:
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R304.5 En19
  • Encyclopedia of the American Constitution
    Edited by Leonard W. Levy and Kenneth L. Karst ; Adam Winkler, associate editor. 2nd ed. (New York, N.Y. : Macmillan Reference USA, c2000). Series: Gale virtual reference library.
    Also available in print at:
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R342.733 En191
  • Encyclopedia of the New American nation : the Emergence of the United States, 1754-1829
    Paul Finkelman, editor-in-chief. 3 vols. (Detroit : Charles Scribner’s Sons : Thomson Gale, c2006).
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R973.4 En2
  • Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century
    Paul Finkelman, editor-in-chief. 3 vols. (New York : Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2001).
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R973 En1956
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    Location: Barnard Reference & US History & Literature Reading Rm, 502 Butler
    Call Number: E169.1 .E626 2001
  • Encyclopedia of the United States in the Twentieth Century
    Stanley I. Kutler, editor-in-chief. 4 vols. (New York : Charles Scribner’s Sons, c1996).
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R973 En196
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    Locations: Barnard Reference & US History & Literature Reading Rm, 502 Butler
    Call Number: E740.7 .E53 1996
  • Gale Virtual Reference Library
    Includes online full text of a wide range of encyclopedic works in history, the arts, business, law, medicine, religion, and social science. A number of the encyclopedias linked from this page are included in this database.
  • The Greenwood Guide to American Popular Culture
    M. Thomas Inge and Dennis Hall, editors. 4 vols. (Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 2002).
    Location: Butler Reference Desk, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R301.2 G85
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    Location: Lehman & US History & Literature Reading Rm, 502 Butler
    Call Number: E169.1 .G7555 2002
  • International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
    Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, editors in chief. (Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier, 2001).
    Also available in print at:
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R033 In813
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    Locations: Barnard Reference & Lehman Reference
    Call Number: H41 .I58 2001
  • Oxford African American Studies Center
    Includes online full text of the following encyclopedic works: Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience; the Encyclopedia of African American History 1619-1895; Black Women in America; the Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature; and the ongoing project African American National Biography.
  • The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos & Latinas in the United States
    Suzanne Oboler and Deena J. Gonzalez. E-reference ed. (Oxford, UK ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2005).
    Also available in print at:
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R325.72 Ox2
  • Oxford Reference Online
    Contains the texts of more than 100 reference titles published by Oxford University Press.
  • St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture
    Tom Pendergast and Sara Pendergast, editors. (Detroit, Mich. : St. James Press, 2000). Series: Gale virtual reference library.
    Also available in print at:
    Location: Butler Reference, 301 Butler
    Call Number: R301.2 St1

Research Guides

Prucha, Francis Paul.  Handbook for research in American history : a guide to bibliographies and other reference works. 2nd ed., rev. (Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, c1994).
Location: Butler Reference Desk, 301 Butler
Call Number: R016.973 P951