Qing and Modern China documents

For Course HSEA8882G001 by Prof. Eugenia Lean

Let's understand the library collections and documents from two simple perspectives: digital and traditional print (despite the library also has rich audio-visual, art object, and other collections).

Digital resources include subscribed commercial databases, databases Columbia collaboratively made available and in a relatively small scale, e-resources created in-house. For the sake of this course, print source materials are those reprinted and published materials in book format based on special documents and collections, normally after they are selected, organized or reorganized, converted to full texts or full images or both texts and images, and sometimes through other processing such as punctuation and annotation the compilers deem fitting.

And we also conduct archival research using physical archives and special collections stored locally and beyond. Hence, two topics:

  • Discovering Source Materials from Acquired Databases and Print Volumes, 9/13/16
  • Researching Archival/Special Collections at Columbia and Beyond, 9/20/16

Discovering Source Materials from Databases & Print Volumes

Databases (Mostly Acquired, and Collaboratively Made Available)

  • Chinese Language Databases:

    All subscribed and most in-house digitized are listed in the page of Chinese E-resources; please pay attention to related Descriptions, which introduce brief useful info about the databases. Examples:    
    • CADAL (China Academic Digital Associative Library) 高等学校中英文图书数字化国际合作计划 (Easy registration required)
    • 中国文化大革命文库
      • 中国反右运动数据库
      • 中国大跃进-大饥荒数据库, 1958-1962
      • 中国五十年代初中期的政治运动数据库: 从土地改革到公私合营, 1949-1956
    • 中国文史资料集粹 (文史资料库)  
    • 中央硏究院漢籍Scripta Sinica, including, for instance,
      • 清實錄
      • 明實錄
      • 宋會要輯稿
      • 大正新脩大藏經
    • 全国报刊索引数据库 (On its platform full-text databases are also included. If an unlinked article found in the index cannot be found in the print or e-resource collections at Columbia or other North American libraries, please let the library staff know the citation information by copying and pasting in e-mail, the article can be delivered to you from China)
      • 民国时期期刊全文数据库
      • 晚清期刊全文数据库(1833-1911)
    • 申报, 1872-1949
    • 內閣大庫檔案
    • 清代宮中檔奏摺及軍機處檔摺件
    • 大清國史人物列傳及史館檔傳包傳稿資料庫
  • English Language Databases:

    When unsure about specific databases, one way to identify is to input the word "China" in CLIO database search and search out almost all China related databases, then browse the result list, and find and use needed ones. Examples:    
    • China: culture and society: the Wason pamphlet collection, Cornell University (1750-1929)
    • China: trade, politics & culture 1793-1980: sources from the School of Oriental and African Studies and the British Library, London
    • Foreign Office files for China (British Foreign Office files dealing with China, Hong Kong and Taiwan 1919-1980)
    • China, America and the Pacific: trade & cultural exchange (between the 18th and early 20th centuries)
    • Political, economic, and military conditions in China: reports and correspondence of the U.S. Military Intelligence Division, 1918-1941
    • Records of the U.S. Information Service in China: Chinese press reviews and summaries, 1944-1950
    • The Chinese Civil War and U.S.-China relations: records of the U.S. State Department's Office of Chinese Affairs, 1945-1955
    • Shanghai Municipal Council: The municipal gazette上海租界工部局: 工部局公報, 1908-1940
    • ProQuest historical newspapers. Chinese Newspapers Collection
    • U.S. intelligence and China: collection, analysis, and covert action (1940s)
    • Declassified documents reference system: DDRS

Print Volumes, Book Sets

Multi-volume sets of archival/special documents and materials, particularly from the First and Second archives are purchased as much as we can, including all indexes and catalogs available on market. One key issue of discovering the right documents is: how to search out the right, needed volumes?

Please use the catalog CLIO or preferably, WorldCat to discover, in addition to, when necessary, using print and digital indexes, catalogs, and bibliographies. WorldCat effectively accommodates the search using traditional or Chinese characters. Besides, if the search result list is too long, use "Limit" and other good features on the upper left of the screen to narrow down and manage needed results.

The First and Second Historical Archives and archival collections and those titles on special topics reprinted by, for instance, 全国图书馆文献缩微复制中心, are among those used frequently.

Normally such publications are multi-volume book sets. Of course, there are cases only one volume was made available on a specific topic.  

  • The First Historical Archive 中國第一歷史檔案館. Examples:
    • 中國第一歷史檔案館所藏中日關係檔案整理目錄. 清代硃批奏摺, 錄副奏摺卷
    • 中琉歷史關系檔案. 嘉慶朝
    • 清宮珍藏殺虎口, 右衛, 右玉縣御批奏摺彙編
    • 胶州湾事件档案史料汇编
    • 清代起居注冊. 雍正朝
    • 明清宮藏中西商贸檔案
    • 乾隆朝满文寄信档译编
    • 清代军机处满文熬茶档
  • The Second Historical Archive 中國第二歷史檔案館. Examples:
    • 南京临时政府遗存珍档
    • 中國第二歷史檔案館所存西藏和藏事檔案彙編
    • 台湾光复纪实
    • 民国时期西藏及藏区经济开发建设档案选编
    • 台湾光复档案
    • 中国旧海关与近代社会图史, 1840-1949
    • 國民政府立法院會議錄
  • Special Topics (by institutions as author, by publisher, by region/government, and by subject, etc., e.g., 全国图书馆文献缩微复制中心、档案出版社; 科研机构; 巴县档案, 淡新档案, 黄岩档案, 徽州文书; 省、市、县级档案馆; 人、组织或事件; etc.). Examples by 缩微复制中心:
    • 中国早期电影画刊
    • 中國近代教育史料匯編 (晚清卷)
    • 民国珍稀短刊断刊. 上海卷
    • 中国早期戏剧画刊
    • 中国近代教育史料汇编. 民国卷
    • 清憲政編查館奏稿匯訂
    • 民国珍稀短刊断刊. 北京卷
    • 晚清民初西藏事務密檔
    • 民国画报汇编. 上海卷
    • 淸内務府檔案文獻匯編
    • 中日甲午戰爭奏稿
    • 晚清民国对外商事贸易统计资料
    • 稀見中英鴉片戰爭密奏
    • 北平地方法院刑事判决案卷
    • 民國佛教期刊文獻集成
    • 中國近代糧政史料
    • 中國近代郵政史料
    • 清代六部文案手摺
    • 辦理商約文牘
    • 清代八旗史料汇编
    • 清末民初(未刊) 府州縣清檔
    • 國家圖書館藏清代孤本內閣六部檔案續編
    • 清蒙古事宜折奏文書
    • 清代黄河流域洪涝档案史料
  • Republican Period book collection example: 民国集萃: A series of image-based reprint books of Republican Period, a total of 7813 volumes.

Please bear in mind that the Starr Library has the Kress Rare Book and Special Collections Reading Room. Starr Library and other libraries of Columbia, particularly RBML, Oral History Center, and Burke, all have rich collections of archival and special documents and materials.

Researching Archival & Special Collections at Columbia and Beyond

Besides documents and materials from databases and print volumes, we can also use the rich archival and special collections in all kinds of formats physically preserved at Columbia, particularly at Starr, RBML, Burke, Teachers College libraries and archives, and at other institutions beyond Columbia. Unlike databases, which in general can be accessible in and outside of the library, or circulating print volumes, which can be borrowed and taken away from the library, the archival and special collections, unless scanned and digitized, have to be physically used in the library holding the collections.

Archival & Speical Collections and Documents at Columbia

  • Kress Rare Book and Special Collections Reading Room, Starr East Asian Library:
    The page of Chinese Rare & Special has basic information on locating, using and reproducing Chinese rare books and special collections. Rare & archival/special collections are in many genres, types and areas. The library has many strength areas, particularly lots of unique sets/titles, or more comprehensive volumes, or better editions, etc. Examples:
    • Local gazetteers, genealogies, and many others: 
      • Local gazetteers: Most titles, or titles before around the 1960s, can be found from 國會圖書館藏中國方志目錄 A catalog of Chinese local histories in the Library of Congress / By Chu Shih Chia. This reference book, interestingly, has rich annotations, indicating the holding status of titles in comparison with LC holdings.
      • The pre-1980s genealogical collections of Columbia may be browsed or searched out first by lineage name and then from province/county or region in LDS Family Search, which may contain scanned images of Columbia's collections. Its Copy Citation: "... [title] from various institutions and private holdings in China, North America, and Southeast Asia", however, does not mention the specific source.
    • Legal history: a very decent collection. Examples:
      • 秋審比校條款附案
      • 历朝折狱纂要
      • 秋審實緩比較成案
      • 秋讞輯要
      • 館稿節鈔
      • 學案初模 學案續編 
      • 駁案續編
      • 各省秋審
      • 新例要覧
      • 刑案成式
      • 刑部說帖掲要
      • (大理院判解) 新刑律集覽
    • A variety of 小册 and its like of Late Qing. Examples:
      • 中日甲午战爭議和小册四種
      • 蒙古新疆西藏小册
      • 敎育小册彙輯
      • 淸季鐵路小册八種
      • 清末官制吏治小册八種
      • 清季實業小册十種
      • 清季刑法小册三種
      • 淸季時事新政小册八種
      • 中緬關係小册三種
    • 傳記行述匯輯: 218 volumes. It contains mostly biographical materials such as 传, 列传, 家传, 行述, 行状, 行略, 事略, 事状, 事实, 事迹备刻, 哀思录, 荣哀录, 哀挽录, 褒忠录, 贻芬录, and 哀挽录. Examples:
      • 沈 廷枫    行述    (1787-1870)
      • 熊 常錞    行述    (1787-1840)
      • 景 惠    行述    (1818-1877)
      • 博 春    行述    (1794-1851)
      • 蹇 念益    行状    (1877-1930)
      • 查 林     行述    (1782-1832)
      • 钱 绥槃    行状    (1870-1921)
      • 钱 溯耆    行述    (1845-1917)
      • 钱 骏祥    行状    (1848-1930)
      • 英 翰    行状    (1829-1877)
      • 景 廉    行状    (1823-1885)
      • 陆 心源    行状    (1834-1895)
      • 盛 宣怀    行述    (1844-1916)
      • 盛 康    行述    (1814-1902)
      • 罗 昆琦    家传    (1882-1918)
      • 罗 长祜    列传    (1849-1884)
      • 张 荫桓    事状    (1837-1900)
      • 缪 树本    事迹备刻    (1817-1862)
      • 孙 诒经    行状    (1826-1890)
      • 翟 奉璋    行述    (1805-1863)
      • 趙爾巽    哀挽录    (1844-1927)
      • 沈 炳垣    事实    (1819-1857)
      • 王 镜寰    哀挽录    (1884-1935)
    • 大清搢紳全書 (搢紳錄): 892 volumes
      嘉慶癸亥-民國17 [1803-1917]
    • 時憲書: 114 volumes
      嘉慶元年-宣統4 [1796-1912]
    • Republican Period: All kinds of publications, including
      • Carlson Collection on War China (1937-1945), including
      • Books, booklets, pamphlets from the Communist-controlled border area
    • Post-1949. Example:
      Collection of China's spring 1989 democracy movement 六四 前后中国民主运动资料汇集
    • Unprocessed collections. Examples:
      • Peter Chang & Yu Feng-chih Collection
      • China Institute Papers. 

  • Rare Book & Manuscript Library:
    • Portals for searching:
    • Chinese Oral History Project and related papers, and many others. Examples:
      • American Bureau for Medical Aid to China Records, 1937–1979. 美國醫藥助華會檔案
      • Benjamin Waugh Papers, 1925–1933. 本傑明∙沃檔案
      • Indusco, Inc. Records, 1938–1985. 中國工合美國促進會檔案
      • Institute of Pacific Relations Records, 1927–1962. 太平洋國際學會檔案
      • International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Records, 1914–1999. 國際鄉村改造學院檔案
      • L. Carrington Goodrich Papers, 1890–1991. 傅路德檔案
      • Leslie H. Chen Papers, 1900–1933. 陳定炎藏陳炯明檔案
      • National Christian Council of China Records, 1919–1950. 中華全國基督教協進會檔案
      • Pearl S. Buck Collection, 1932–1956. 賽珍珠檔案
      • Peter H. L. and Edith Chang Papers, 1930s-–2001. 張學良、趙一荻檔案
      • Wellington Koo papers, 1906–1976. 顧維鈞檔案
      • William Henry Donald Papers, 1924–1946. 端納檔案
    • Register and create an access account and go to RBML Reading Room to use 
  • Burke Library at Union Theological Seminary:
    • Missionary Research Library China collections: personal, institutional and event papers
    • Regular and irregular, continuous and discontinuous documents and materials such as booklets, serials, newsletters, pamphlets on educational and medical mission, etc.
  • Other Libraries:
    • Gottesman Libraries at Teachers College:
      China-U.S education exchange collections, particularly pre-1949, such as Dewey's, Monroe's and other papers and documents; Chinese text books of Republican Period
    • Augustus C. Long Health Sciences Library:
      Viola Wertheim Bernard Papers, 1918–2000, containing Tibet-related documents and photos of Republican Period.
    • Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library:
      China-related architecture and related documents

  • University Archives; Oral History Center; Registrar's Office; Alumni Office
    Particularly for researching Columbia-related events and Columbia alumni.

Beyond Columbia

To locate, identify, and find out needed documents, both print and electronic inventories, bibliographies, catalogs, portals, and finding aids of all kinds should be used until the searching needs are met.

In recent years, archival and special collections have been increasingly digitized and made available for researchers.

  • Online Inventories, Catalogs and Portals:
    • Comprehensive ones. Examples: 
      • Archive Finder
        primary source material from repositories and collections in the United States, the United Kingdom and Ireland
      • ArchiveGrid
        With over 1,000 different archival institutions represented, ArchiveGrid helps researchers looking for primary source materials held in archives, libraries, museums and historical societies
      • Access to Archival Databases (AAD) System
        Online access to highly structured electronic records at the National Archives and Records Administration
    • Regional union inventories, catalogs and discovery tools. Examples:
    • Institutional catalogs, portals, and discovery tools. Examples:
      • National Archives and Records Administration, Library of Congress, U.S. Army Military History Institute; Presbyterian Historical Society, NYPL; Harvard, Yale, Stanford/Hoover; etc.
      • Harvard OASIS (Online Archival Search Information System); Yale Finding Aid Database; etc.
  • Digitization of Archival & Special Documents and Materials.
    Most libraries work on some digitization projects. The end results will be entered into the institution's online catalog or digital project portals. Examples:
    • Harvard-Yenching Library Chinese Digitizationl Projects
      • Chinese Rare Local Gazetteers 中國珍稀舊方志
      • Chinese Maritime Customs 中國舊海關資料
      • Chinese Rare Books- Unique, Manuscripts, ect. 哈佛燕京圖書館中文善本特藏 稿,钞,孤本(傅斯年圖書館合作項目)
      • Chinese Rare Books Collection- Classics & History 哈佛燕京图书馆中文善本特藏- 經,史部(中国国家图书馆合作项目)
      • Chinese Rare Books Collection- Collectanea Section 哈佛燕京圖書館中文善本特藏- 叢部
      • Chinese Rare Books Collection- Collected Works 哈佛燕京圖書館中文善本特藏- 集部
      • Chinese Rare Books Collection- Philosophy 哈佛燕京圖書館中文善本特藏- 子部
      • Chinese Republican Period (1911-1949) Collection 哈佛燕京圖書館藏民國時期文獻
      • Chinese Rubbings 拓片收藏
      • Hedda Morrison Photographs of China 中国老照片, 1933-1946
      • Ming-Qing Women's Writings 明清婦女著作 (McGill University Library 合作項目)
      • Qi Brothers Collection 齐氏兄弟 (齊耀琳, 齊耀珊) 藏书
      • Rev. Claude L. Pickens, Jr. Collection on Muslims in China 中国穆斯林老照片
    • Princeton East Asian Digital Library
    • UCLA
    • University of Oregon & University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee