Africa's Iron and Copper Currencies: Suggested Reading

Columbia locations and call numbers indicated.  Originally posted to accompany an exhibition.

  1. African iron working: ancient and traditional. Edited by Randi Haaland and Peter Shinnie. Oslo : Norwegian U. P., 1985.
    Butler GN780.4.A1 A37 1985
  2. The art of metal in Africa. (Exhibition and catalogue.) Edited by Marie-Therese Brincard ; translations and additional research by Evelyn Fischel. New York : African-American Institute, c1982.
    Fine Arts NB1097 W52 Ar75
  3. Bisson, Michael. "Copper currency in central Africa: the archaeological evidence." World archaeology. 6, 3 (Feb. 1975): 276-92.
    Avery AB W892
  4. Cameron, Elisabeth L. "Blades of beauty and death: African art forged in metal. (Mesa College Art Gallery, San Diego)" African Arts. 23 (Oct. 1990): 82-83.
    Fine Arts N1 Af83
  5. The culture and technology of African iron production. Edited by Peter R. Schmidt. Gainesville, FL : University Press of Florida, 1996.
    Butler GN780.4.A1 C85 1996
  6. Daaku, K. "Pre-European currencies of West Africa and Western Sudan." Ghana notes and queries. 2 (1961): 12-14.
    Butler DT510.A1 H553
  7. De Negri, Eva. "Nigerian jewelry." Nigeria magazine. 74 (Sept. 1962): 43-54.
    Lehman DT515 .N47
    Butler 966.9 N5
  8. De Negri, Eva. "Small currency, blue shells and manillas." Nigeria magazine. 102 (Sept./Nov. 1969): 509-511.
    Lehman DT515 .N47
  9. De Maret, Pierre and G. Thiry. "How old is the Iron Age in Central Africa?" In The culture and technology of African iron production, edited by Peter R. Schmidt. Gainesville, FL : University Press of Florida, 1996. pp. 29-40.
    Butler GN780.4.A1 C85 1996
  10. Dupré, Georges. "The history and adventures of a monetary object of the Kwélé of the Congo: mezong, mondjos, and mondjong." In Money matters: instability, values and social payments in the modern history of West African communities, edited by Jane Guyer. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann, 1995.
    pp. 77-97.
    Lehman-Social Work Reserves HG1370 .M66 1995
  11. Earthy, Dora E. "Short note on a Kisi smith." Man. 34 (Oct. 1934): 159-161.
    Lehman GN2 .M35
    Barnard Periodicals
  12. Essomba, Joseph-Marie. Civilisation du fer et société en Afrique centrale : le cas du Cameroun méridional : histoire ancienne et archéologie. -- Paris : L'Harmattan, c1992.
    Butler GN780.42 .C17 E77 1992
  13. Eyo, Ekpo. Nigeria and the evolution of money. Lagos, Nigeria : Central Bank of Nigeria, 1979.
    Business HG1345.N53 E9
  14. Grey, R.F.A. "Manillas." Nigerian field. (1951): 56-57. Butler 966.9 N566
  15. Guyer, Jane. "Indigenous currencies and the history of marriage payments: a case study from Cameroon." Cahiers d'études africaines. 26, 4 (1986): 577-610.
    Butler DT1 .C24
  16. Herbert, Eugenia W. Iron, gender, and power : rituals of transformation in African societies. African systems of thought. Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press, c1993.
    Butler GN645 .H43 1993
    Barnard GN645 .H43 1993
  17. Herbert, Eugenia W. Red gold of Africa: copper in precolonial history and culture. Madison, Wis. : University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.
    Butler GH645 .H44 1984
  18. Imperato, Pascal James. "African metal implements: weapons, tools and regalia. (Hillwood Art Gallery, Long Island University C. W. Post Campus, Greenvale, New York)" African Arts. 18 (May 1985): 93.
    Fine Arts N1 Af83
  19. Jones, G.I. "Native trade currencies in southern Nigeria during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries." Africa. 28 (1958): 43-54.
    Butler 960 Af832
    Lehman DT1 .Af812
    Barnard Periodicals
  20. Killick, David J. "On claims for 'advanced' ironworking technology in precolonial Africa." In The culture and technology of African iron production, edited by Peter R. Schmidt. Gainesville, FL : University Press of Florida, 1996.
    pp. 247-67.
    Butler GN780.4.A1 C85 1996
  21. Kirk-Greene, A.H.M. "The major currencies in Nigeria." Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria. 2, 1 (1960): 132-150.
    Butler DT515.A2 H5
  22. Kriger, Colleen E. Pride of men : iron working in 19th century West Central Africa. Social history of Africa. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann, c1999.
    Butler TS304.A352 K75 1999
  23. Latham, A.J.H. "Currency credit and capitalism on the Cross River in the precolonial era." Journal of African history. 12, 4 (1971): 599-605.
    Butler DT1 .J65
    Lehman DT1 .J83
    Barnard Periodicals
  24. Lawal, Ibironke O. Metalworking in Africa south of the Sahara : an annotated bibliography. African special bibliographic series ; no. 19.
    Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1995.
    Butler Reference R016.96 L414
  25. McNaughton, Patrick R. The Mande blacksmiths. Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press, 1993, c1988.
    Butler Reserves DT551.45.M36 M38 1993g
    Fine Arts NB1097 M29 M231
    Barnard Course Reserves DT551.45.M36 M38 1993
  26. Meyer, Laure. Les arts des metaux en Afrique noire. Saint-Maur : Sepia, 1997.
    Fine Arts NB1097 Su14 M573
  27. Miller, Duncan E. and Tim Maggs. "Precolonial metalworking in Africa : a bibliography." Rondebosch, South Africa: University of Cape Town, 1998. (via Mining History Network, Dr. Roger Burt, University of Exeter, UK)
    Mostly southern and south-central Africa.
  28. Money matters: instability, values, and social payments in the modern history of West African communities. Social history of Africa.
    Edited by Jane I. Guyer. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann ; London : J. Currey, c1995.
    Lehman-Social Work Reserves HG1370 .M66 1995
  29. Naanen, Ben. "Economy within an economy: the manila currency, exchange rate instability, and social conditions in southeastern Nigeria, 1900-1948." Journal of African history. 34, 1 (1993): 435-446.
    Butler DT1 .J65
    Lehman DT1 .J83
    Barnard Periodicals
  30. Sassom, Hamo. "Iron smelting in the hill village of Sukur, northeastern Nigeria." Man. 64 (Nov./Dec. 1964): 174-178.
    Lehman GN2 .M35
    Barnard Periodicals
  31. Schaedler, Karl-Ferdinand ... [et al.] Earth and ore : 2500 years of African art in terra cotta and metal. Kurasburg : Edition Minerva ; Munchen : Distributed by Panterra Verlag, c1997.
    Fine Arts NB1080 Sch12
  32. Spande, Dennis. A historical perspective on metallurgy in Africa : a bibliography. Waltham, Mass. : Crossroads Press, c1977.
    Butler Z6334.A35 S6
  33. Spring, Christopher. African arms and armour. London : Published for the Trustees of the British Museum by British Museum Press, c1993.
    Fine Arts N7380 Sp82
  34. Symbols of wealth : abstractions in African metalwork (with photographs by Schecter Lee). New York, NY : Michael Ward, Inc., 1988. (9 p.)
    Avery AK6487 Sy61
  35. Webb, James L.A., Jr. "Toward a comparative study of money: a reconsideration of West African currencies and neoclassical monetary concepts." International journal of African historical studies . 15, 3 (1982): 455-66.
    Butler DT1 .A226
  36. Zaslavsky, Claude. Africa counts: number and pattern in African culture. Boston, MA : Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, Inc., 1973. (See especially, "Chapter 7: Numbers and money.")
    Lehman GN476.1 .Z37

(March 2000)
Compiled by Yuusuf Caruso
African Studies Librarian, Columbia University