Reference & Citation Management
Citation management software makes mining and using information resources easier and more effective, helping you to:
- Capture bibliographic and full-text information as you explore
- Organize, evaluate, annotate, and search within your collection
- Cite and list resources in a wide range of bibliographic styles as needed
- Access the information on your desktop or online
- Synchronize your data across multiple machines
- Share your research with others
Email a librarian with expertise in using Zotero and other citation-management tools or use our Ask A Librarian chat service with questions related to library-supported resources. You can also contact a staff member in person or by phone when the Libraries are open.
Zotero allows you to collect, organize, cite and share your research sources and enables the download, capture, and indexing of full text from PDFs and websites. The Libraries recommend the use of Zotero due to its open-source pedigree and widespread popularity.
Zotero is available as a Firefox plugin as well as a standalone version, providing browser extensions for Firefox, Chrome, and Safari. Zotero's integration with Firefox is considerably more efficient than with the other browsers, however, so bear this in mind when getting started.
Click here for a free download of Zotero. Consult the Quick Start Guide for tips and videos on how to get started using Zotero. Be sure to download a word processor plugin to make the fullest use of this software.
The Libraries offer free hands-on workshops on using Zotero. You can find information about dates and times as well as register online to attend one of these sessions on the Libraries Workshops page.
Using Zotero to Maintain Integrity in your Online Sources:
Mendeley is a free standalone application, which performs largely the same functions as Zotero, but behaves a little bit differently. For example, while both Zotero and Mendeley allow you to extract metadata (such as title, authors, etc.) from PDFs, Mendeley automates this process while providing the option of organizing your files directly in your hard drive in a customizable manner. Mendeley also allows for highlighting and annotations directly on the article PDF.
- Download Mendeley for Windows, Mac, or Linux.
- Here is a list of Mendeley Help Guides to get you started, or to expand your knowledge.
- Download EndNote 20 for Windows
- Download the License.dat file
- The license.dat file needs to be in the same location as the installation file in order for the registration to work (e.g. if you downloaded the installation file to your Downloads folder, the license.dat file needs to be there as well).
- Access through Web of Science. Click EndNote in the Products menu in the black bar.
- For LaTeX users, BibDesk might suit your needs.
- See also: Wikipedia's Comparison of Reference Management Software
Zotero provides instructions on how to import reference libraries from other software you may have used in the past.
The three most common citation styles are APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago Style. In general, APA is used in the social sciences, MLA is used in the humanities, and Chicago Style is used in history. However, your instructor will tell you what style you should use in your work for class assignments.
Citation Style Guides:
- Duke University Libraries - APA, Chicago, CSE, MLA, & Turabian
- OWL Writing Lab - APA & MLA
- The Columbia Guide to Online Style (Includes guidelines for online citations and for formatting your documents.)
- Citing Electronic Resources - Chicago & MLA
- Citing Government Documents (Includes citation formats for specific government documents.)